One hundred and one Old Qári roots and their derivatives (part 1)

One of the first conlanging “texts” I discovered back before the internet was the Etymologies in The Lost Road and Other Writings, the fifth volume in the History of Middle Earth series. I used to pore over the roots and their derivations for hours. This series of posts, hopefully, captures some of the spirit that I found so beguiling back in 1996.

ʔkʷx “to be dry”
zero-gradeʔɨ́kʷə– ‘withered, dead (adj.)’; ʔɨ́kʷxṣt ‘funerary space, boneyard’;
front gradeʔɨkʷxé ‘dry out (vi.)’; ʔékʷəti ‘mud-brick’; ʔékʷəs ‘dry out, preserve (vt.)’; ʔékʷəsti ‘dried meat, jerky’;
back gradeʔɨkʷxá ‘dry season’; ʔákʷən ‘dry (adj.)’; ʔákʷxṣt ‘hummock, raised area in marshes, platform’;

ʔnk “to bite”
zero-gradeʔṇ́kil ‘mosquito’; ʔṇ́kɨpi ‘nibble, bite off’; ʔṇ́kun ‘hold firm, steady (vt.)’;
front gradeʔṇké ‘bite’; ʔénkət ‘cat’ (< ‘biter’); ʔénkɨk ‘peg, fastner’;
back gradeʔṇká ‘tooth’; ʔánkɨk ‘jaw’;

ʔpn “to throw”
zero-grade: ʔɨ́pṇpi ‘to toss, to throw’;
front grade: ʔɨpné ‘to launch, to shoot’, ʔépṇr ‘slinger’, ʔépṇtṣ ‘spear, javelin’;
back grade: ʔápṇk ‘slingshot’; ʔápnun ‘to aim at’, ʔápnunti ‘goal, target’;

ʔsx “to burn”
zero-grade: ʔṣxɨk ‘fire’; ʔṣən ‘hot’; 
front grade: ʔṣxé ‘to burn (vi.); ʔésəs ‘to burn’ (vt.); ʔésxun ‘to roast, grill (vt.)’;
back grade: ʔásə ‘heat’; ʔásxṣt ‘oven, hearth’; ʔásəstṛ ‘baker’;

ʔxn “to inhale”
zero-grade: ʔə́nis ‘to breathe in, inhale, sniff, smell’;
front grade: ʔéxṇtə ‘to seek, search, look for’;
back grade: ʔáxṇ ‘scent, smell, odour’; ʔáxṇti ‘cannabis’;

ʔyd “to build, pile up”
zero-grade: ʔídət ‘ant’; ʔídɨ ‘pile, mound’;
front grade: ʔidé ‘to build, construct’; ʔéydɨti ‘earthwork, construction project, canal’;
back grade: ʔáydə ‘house, building’, ʔáydəŋ ‘hall, guest-house, large building, temple’;

ʔyt “to eat”
zero-grade: ʔítɨ ‘to eat’; ʔítti ‘food, (esp. grain)’;
front grade: ʔéytət ‘pig, wild boar’; ʔéytṣ ‘to feed, provide for’;
back grade: ʔáytəŋ ‘meal, feast’; ʔáytɨti ‘bread’;

blm “to scratch”
zero-grade: bḷ́mɨ ‘to scratch’; bɨ́lṇs ‘to itch, to irritate, to annoy’; bḷ́mə ‘rash, itch’; bḷ́mpi ‘to tickle’;
front grade: bḷmé ‘to incise, to decorate, to write’; bélṇk ‘stylus’;
back grade: bálṇti ‘glyph, character’;

bry “hair, fur, feathers”
zero-grade: bṛ́yɨ ‘a feather’; bṛ́yṛʔ ‘hair of the head’; kibríx ‘pubic hair’;
front grade: pəbṛyé ‘to remove hair or feathers, shear, shave, pluck’; bérikṇ ’to undergo adolescence’;
back grade: bṛyá ‘fur’; lubári ‘feathered headdress’; lubaryṇt ‘chief, leader’;

btm “to stamp down, to dance”
front grade: bɨtmé ‘to stamp down’; bétṇtə ‘to dance’;
back grade: bátmṣt ‘plaza, threshing ground’;

byw “to create, to make”
zero-grade: bíwɨk ‘tool’;
front grade: biwé ‘to make, create, compose’; béyur ‘maker, craftsman, poet’
back grade: báywə ‘thing, creation, composition, poem’;  

dmy “to bury”
zero-grade: dṇyɨ ‘to bury’; dṇyun ‘to conceal’; pədṇyɨ ‘to uncover, to reveal’
back grade: dṇyá ’store, provisions’; kidámix ‘apotropaic offering to the chthonic demons, idol’; 

dmk “to hide oneself, to be silent”
zero-grade: dṇkṣt ‘hiding place, nest’
front grade: pədṇké ‘to ambush’; démkɨs ‘to scare, to startle’
back grade: dṇká ’be silent’; dámkṇ ‘quiet, silent’; 

dsk “mouth”
front grade: dṣké ‘to kiss’;
back grade: dáskə ‘mouth’; idáskə ‘language’;

dsp “to be tall”
zero-grade: dṣ́pɨ ‘date palm’;
front grade: déspɨkṇ ‘to grow taller’;
back grade: dṣpá ‘mountain’; dáspṇ ‘tall’; dáspṇt ‘proud, arrogant’;

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