One hundred and one Old Qári roots and their derivatives (part 5)

The penultimate in this series – potentially the longest post thus far. We go from toilets to wisdom in this post!

rtm “to urinate, to defecate”
zero-grade: ṛ́tṇ ‘bad’; ṛ́tmə ‘turd’;
front grade: ṛtmé ‘to urinate’; rétṇtə ‘to defecate’; rétṇxt ‘cow, cattle’; rétṇstə ‘toilet, sewer’;
back grade: rátmə ‘faeces’;

rʔm “to lie recumbent”
zero-grade: ṛ́ʔmṣt ‘bed’;
front grade: ṛʔmé ‘to lie down’; pəréʔmṣl ‘to wake up, to get up’; réʔṇsu ‘to place, to set’;
back grade: ráʔmi ‘to rest, to recline’; ráʔmṇt ‘catamite’;

sds “to mix, to churn”
zero-grade: ṣ́dṣn ‘clumsy’; ṣ́dṣr ‘fool, idiot’; ṣ́dṣʔ ‘among’;
front grade: sédṣtə ‘to mix together, to churn’; ṣdsé ‘to mix together’; pəsédṣkṇ ‘to sort, to thresh’; sédṣk ‘ladle, spoon’;
back grade: sádsə ‘butter, cheese, yoghurt’; sádṣti ‘dough’; sádṣs ‘to confuse’; sádṣn ‘confused, drunk’;

sdw “to be fleshy”
zero-grade: ṣ́du ‘fat, stocky’; ṣ́dux ‘meat, flesh, pulp’; ṣ́dwil ‘fig (g. Ficus)’;
back grade: ṣdwá ‘meat’; sádux ‘limb, portion’; sádwət ‘calf of leg’;

sgʷl “to be new, to be fresh”
zero-grade: ṣ́gʷḷn ‘new’;
front grade: ségʷli ‘to sprout, to germinate’; ségʷḷn ‘green’;
back grade: ṣgʷálə ‘novelty, rumour’; ságʷlin ‘child’; ságʷḷy ‘bride’;

skx “fresh water”
zero-grade: ṣ́kə ‘fresh water’;
front grade: ṣkéxə ‘stream, pool, well’; uskéxə ‘sacred well’; uskéxrə ‘place of the sacred wells > Ukxár’;
back grade: sákəsu ‘to clean, to purify’; sákxṣt ‘bath, place of purification’; sákən ‘pure, clean’; sákər ‘lustration priest’;

skʷr “to hear, to listen”
zero-grade: ṣ́kʷɨrə ‘noise, sound’;
front grade: sékʷri ‘to listen to, to hear’; sékʷṛx ‘ear’;
back grade: sákʷṛr ‘listener, confessor, witness’; sákʷṛstə ‘audience chamber, court’; 

slp “to lick”
zero-grade: sḷ́pṛ ‘tongue’;
front grade: sḷpé ‘to lick, to taste’; sélpṇ ‘sweet’; sélɨpti ‘honey’;
back grade: sḷpá ’taste, flavour’; sálpə ‘mead’; 

slt “to shine”
zero-grade: sḷ́tṛ ‘star’;
front grade: sélti ‘to shine’; séltɨk ‘light’;
back grade: sáltə ‘moon’; sáltṇ ‘bright’;

smk “to hit, to strike”
zero-grade: sṇ́kṛ ‘club’; sṇ́kɨk ‘thing for beating’;
front grade: sṇké ‘to hit, to strike’; sémkṛ ‘striker, fighter’; sémɨktə ‘to beat, to felt’; sémkil ‘to thresh’; sémkṣt ‘threshing ground’;
back grade: sṇká ‘felt’; sámɨktṣ ‘semantron, xylophone’; sámkṣl ‘a fight, a battle’; 

swp “to grind”
front grade: supé ‘to grind’; séwpɨk ‘quern, pestle and mortar’; séwpṛ ‘grinding slave’; séwipki ‘to crush’;
back grade: sáwɨpti ‘grain, flour’; supá ‘flour’; 

tby “to break”
zero-grade: tɨ́bi ‘pain’; tɨ́bin ‘painful’;
front grade: tɨbyé ‘to break’; tébit ‘fist’; kitébyu ‘to divide into pieces, to share out’; kitébir ‘magistrate who administers the grain dole’, tébitə ‘to tear’;
back grade: tábin ‘broken, useless’; tábir ‘cripple’; tábyə ‘portion, share’; tábiwṇ ‘buttocks’;

tkx “to take”
zero-grade: tɨ́kə ‘mouse’; tɨ́kil ‘scrotum (< small mouse)’;
front grade: tɨkxé ‘to take’; tékətə ‘to steal’; tékəs ‘to give’; tékəwṇ ‘to consider, to think about, to find out’; utkéxu ‘to adopt’; utkéxkə ‘adopted child’;
back grade: tákxə ‘spoils, booty’; tákətṣ ‘tax, levy, tribute’;

tlm “horn, supraorbital ridge”
zero-grade: tḷ́mɨ ‘horn’;
front grade: télmṇt ‘adult man’; tḷmé ‘brow, supraorbital ridge’

tns “to be heavy”
zero-grade: tṇ́sṇ ‘heavy’; tɨ́nṣk ‘burden, load’; tɨ́nṣkṇ ‘difficult, burdensome’;
front grade: tṇsé ‘to weigh’; ténṣs ‘to load up, to burden’; ténsṣl ‘to work, to labour, to burden oneself’;
back grade: tánṣr ‘idiot’; tánṣn ‘foolish, stupid’; tánṣk ‘summer heat’; 

tpx “to dig up, to unearth”
zero-grade: tɨ́pxət ‘boar, pig’;
front grade: tɨpxé ‘to dig up’; tépək ‘plough’; tépəki ‘to plough’; tépəkir ‘ploughman, farmer’; kitépəw ‘to transplant (of rice)’
back grade: tápəx ‘soil, loam’; tápətṣ ‘ditch, drainage channel’; tápxṣt ‘field’; 

trs “to go”
zero-grade: tṛ́sə ‘path’;
front grade: tṛsé ‘to go’; térṣki ‘to travel a long distance, to migrate’; térṣs ‘to send’; térṣr ‘traveller’; térṣtṣ ‘road’;
back grade: tṛsá ‘door’; társə ‘journey’; tárṣk ‘travois, cart’; 

tsk “to scrape”
front grade: tésku ‘to scrape, to prepare’; téskɨk ‘scraper’;
back grade: tṣká ‘hide, leather’; 

twm “to leap, jump”
front grade: tumé ‘to jump’; téwṇr ‘hare’;

tyʔ “to be small”
zero-grade: tíʔṇ ‘small’;
front grade: téyʔṣ ‘to make small, to shrink’;
back grade: táyʔə ’smallness’; táyʔṛ ‘small one’; 

wdx “to be salty”
zero-grade: údə ‘cursed’; údən ‘bad’;
front grade: wédəy ‘to become salty, to fail’; məwédəs ‘to add salt, to preserve’; pəwédəw ‘to rejuvenate a field, to leave fallow’;
back grade: wádəx ‘tamarisk’; wádən ‘salty, saline’; wádətṣ ‘curse’;

wgm “to stay overnight”
zero-grade: úgṇ ‘tent, hut’;
front grade: wégṇy ‘to camp’; wégṇt ‘campsite’;
back grade: wágnṣt ‘courtyard’; 

wgʷt “vulva”
zero-grade: úgʷɨt ‘vulva’;
back grade: wágʷtṇt ‘woman’;

wlkʷ “to exchange”
front grade: wḷkʷé ‘to exchange’; wélkʷṛ ‘trader’;
back grade: wálkʷə ‘trade good, thing’; wálkʷṇt ‘contract’;

wtk “to know”
front grade: utké ‘to know’; wétkṣ ‘to teach, to inform’; wétkṛ ‘knower’; utékṣr ‘teacher’;
back grade: wátkə ‘knowdege, wisdom’; wátkṇt ‘lion’; wátkṇ ‘wise’; 

wxp “to be pale”
zero-grade: wə́pṇ ‘white’; wə́pṣt ‘north’;

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